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Voters in Chad will go to the polls on Sunday for an election in which President Idriss Deby is poised to extend his three-decade rule.
The following are the current 10 African leaders in power the longest. GRAPHIC: https://tmsnrt.rs/3qlDdzn
* EQUATORIAL GUINEA - Teodoro Obiang - more than 41 years
(Aug. 3, 1979 - present)
Obiang, now 78, seized power from his uncle in a coup. While opposition parties were legalised in 1992, Obiang's Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea dominates. He has won over 90% of votes at every election, some of which the opposition boycotted.
* CAMEROON - Paul Biya - more than 38 years
(Nov. 6, 1982 - present)
Biya took over in 1982 from President Ahmadou Ahidjo after serving as prime minister for seven years. Biya, 88, has won five multi-party elections since 1992. The opposition has called the results fraudulent. Two-term limits were abolished in 2008.
* CONGO REPUBLIC - Denis Sassou Nguesso - 38 years
(Feb. 8, 1979 - Aug. 31, 1992; Oct. 25, 1997 - present)
Sassou, 77, assumed office in 1979 before losing the country's first multi-party elections in 1992. He regained power in 1997 after a civil war and changed the constitution in 2015 to let himself stand for re-election the following year. He was declared the winner of a March 21, 2021 election.
* UGANDA - Yoweri Museveni - more than 35 years
(Jan. 29, 1986 - present)
Museveni became president when his forces seized the capital Kampala after a five-year guerrilla struggle. Now 76, he has won six elections since 1996, the most recent in January. Parliament has twice changed the constitution to allow him to run, first removing a two-term limit in 2005 and then abolishing the age limit of 75 in 2017.
* eSWATINI - King Mswati III - almost 35 years
(April 25 1986 - present)
Absolute monarch, Mswati, now 52, was crowned in April 1986. Political parties have been banned in eSwatini, previously known as Swaziland, since 1973.
* CHAD - Idriss Deby - more than 30 years
(Dec. 2, 1990 - present)
Deby took power at the head of an armed rebellion. Two-term limits were abolished in 2005 and reimposed in 2018. The move will not be applied retroactively, meaning Deby, 68, could serve two six-year terms after the 2021 election.
* ERITREA - Isaias Afwerki - almost 28 years
(May 19, 1993 - present)
Afwerki, 75, has ruled since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia. There have never been national elections in Eritrea, which rights groups consider to be one of the most repressive states in the world.
* DJIBOUTI - Ismail Omar Guelleh - almost 22 years
(May 8, 1999 - present)